On Monday, April 21, 2019, the U.S. Supreme Court agreed to hear, during the 2019-2020 term, three cases alleging sex discrimination in employment under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (“Title VII”). These three cases provide the Court an opportunity to decide whether Title VII’s bar against sex discrimination extends to discrimination based upon sexual orientation and gender identity.
Zarda v. Altitude Express, Inc.
On February 26, 2018, the Second Circuit ruled en banc that Title VII bars discrimination based on sexual orientation. The Court opined: “… the most natural reading of the statute’s prohibition of discrimination “because of sex” is that it extends to sexual orientation discrimination because sex is necessarily a factor in sexual orientation.”
Bostock v. Clayton County Board of Commissioners
On May 10, 2018, the Eleventh Circuit reached a different conclusion as to whether Title VII bars discrimination based upon sexual orientation. In doing so, the Court followed 1979 precedent from the 11th Circuit holding that “discharge for homosexuality is not prohibited by Title VII.”
EEOC v. R.G. & G.R. Harris Funeral Homes, Inc.
On March 7, 2018, the Sixth Circuit ruled that “[d]iscrimination on the basis of transgender and transitioning status is necessarily discrimination on the basis of sex …” The Court clarified that “discrimination against transgender persons necessarily implicates Title VII’s proscriptions against sex stereotyping.”
Takeaways for Employers
As observed in a March 2018 post on this blog, a new wave of lawsuits alleging LGBTQ discrimination in employment had begun long before the Zarda ruling on February 26, 2018. Even in circuits which, as the Eleventh Circuit, have rejected the application of Title VII to LGBTQ claims, the chance that the Supreme Court may overturn such precedent has provided hope that such suits can ultimately prove successful.
To be sure, the Supreme Court may ultimately decide that Congressional, not judicial, action is needed to expand the scope of Title VII to include sexual orientation and gender identity discrimination. Such a decision, however, may not come until 2020. In the meantime, employers must manage the risk of LGBTQ lawsuits even in states which do not have state or local laws barring such discrimination.
Robert G. Chadwick, Jr. frequently speaks to non-profit organizations regarding labor & employment issues. To contact him for a speaking engagement please e-mail him at firstname.lastname@example.org